Reasoning is the process for making clear how your evidence supports your claim. In scientific argumentation, clear reasoning includes using scientific ideas or principles to make logical connections to show how the evidence supports the claim. Students often have difficulty making their reasoning clear in an argument. For example, they will frequently state a science concept without explaining how it helps explain the link between the claim and evidence.  

The Approach video below provides an overview of this element. The other videos include activities and strategies to support students in learning about and using reasoning.

Approach: Reasoning

Activity: Reasoning Tool

Strategy: Encouraging Reasoning During a Card Sort

Strategy: Writing an Argument, Using the Reasoning Tool

Strategy: Writing for a Hypothetical Audience


View presentation: Developing Reasoning Skills